1. PHYSICAL AND GEOMETRIC OPTICS:
Properties of light: Electromagnetic spectrum, wave theory, particle theory, diffraction, interference, resolution, polarisation, scattering, transmission and absorption, photometry, lasers
Life and light travels in straight lines. But each still has a spectrum, a resolution and can scatter.
Reflection: Laws of reflection, reflection at a plane surface, reflection at curved surfaces
Reflect and smile at yourself. You are always beautiful.
Refraction: Laws of refraction (Snell’s Law), refraction at a plane surface, refraction at curved surfaces, critical angle and total internal reflection
Prisms: Definition, notation of prisms, uses in ophthalmology (diagnostic and therapeutic), types of prism
Spherical lenses: Cardinal points, thin lens formula, thick lens formula, formation of the image, vergence power (dioptric power), magnification, spherical decentration and prism power, lens form
Astigmatic lenses: Cylindrical lenses, Maddox rod, toric lenses, Conoid of Sturm, Jackson’s cross cylinder Notation of lenses: Spectacle prescribing, simple transposition, toric transposition
Identification of unknown lenses: Neutralisation, focimeter, Geneva lens measure
Aberrations of lenses: Correction of aberrations relevant to the eye, Duochrome test
2. CLINICAL OPTICS
Optics of the eye: Transmittance of light by the optic media, schematic and reduced eye, Stiles-Crawford effect, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, catoptric images, emmetropia, accommodation, Purkinje shift, pinhole.
Ametropia: Myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism, anisometropia, aniseikonia, aphakia
Accommodative problems: Insufficiency, excess, AC/A ratio
Refractive errors: Prevalence, inheritance, changes with age, surgically induced
Correction of ametropia: Spectacle lenses, contact lenses, intraocular lenses, principles of refractive surgery
Problems of spectacles in aphakia: Effect of spectacles and contact lens correction on accommodation and convergence, effective power of lenses, back vertex distance, spectacle magnification, calculation of intraocular lens power, presbyopia
Low visual aids: High reading addition, magnifying lenses, telescopic aids - Galilean telescope