1. GENERAL PATHOLOGY
Acute inflammation: Chemical mediators, cellular mechanisms
Chronic inflammation: Types, granulomata, immune mechanisms, ulceration, specific examples
Immunological mechanisms: Types of hypersensitivity reaction
Degenerations: Examples: amyloidosis, calcification
Ageing and atrophy
Hypertrophy, hyperplasia and metaplasia
Vascular disorders: Atheroma, thrombosis (and homeostatic clotting mechanisms
embolism (including pulmonary embolism), ischaemia and infarction, congestion and
oedema, angiogenesis, hypertension, aneurysms, diabetic microangiopathy
Neoplasia: Definition, terminology, concepts; benign and malignant tumours;
carcinogenesis; gene control – including regulation of apoptosis; oncogenes; geographical
and environmental factors; pre-neoplastic conditions; effects of irradiation and cytotoxic
We age. We inflame. We shock. We hurt. We can heal with sorrow or heal with love. Heal the eye with your love.
2. BASIC OCULAR PATHOLOGY
With an emphasis on:
Cornea endothelial dysfunction and corneal dystrophies
Age Related Macular Degeneration
Retinal vascular occlusion
Retinal detachment and Proliferative Vitreo-retinopathy
A clear eye clears the mind. A clear mind clears the world.
The biological and clinical behaviour of the micro-organisms responsible for infections
Elementary principles of microbial pathogenesis: Concepts of colonisation, invasion, endotoxins, exotoxins, virulence and pathogenicity etc.
Gram staining and classification
Commensal eye flora
Viruses: Classification, structure and replication, antiviral agents, laboratory methods of viral detection; viral infections of the eye.
HIV and AIDS
Fungi: Classification, factors which predispose to fungal infection, antifungal agents.
Toxoplasmosis, Chlamydia, Acanthamoeba, helminthic infections
Principles of sterilization: Disinfection and asepsis and the application of these to current
practice and practical procedures
Antimicrobials: Spectrum of activity, mode of action, pharmacokinetics and resistance
When the eye is invaded, resist and fight. Do not let anyone take over your dreams
Principles of immunology e.g. non-specific resistance, genetic basis of immunity, cellular and humoral mechanisms
Host defence mechanisms with particular reference to the eye
Mechanisms of immunologically-induced tissue damage with special reference to the eye
Role of soluble mediators (cytokines and chemokines) in regulation of inflammatory responses
MHC antigens, antigen presenting cells and antigen processing
Transplantation immunology (with particular reference to the cornea)
Immunodeficiency and immunosuppression
Tissue regulation (with particular reference to the eye) of inflammatory responses)