Story Of The Eye
for the girl with the most beautiful eyes i ever saw

BCS4 Pathology


Acute inflammation: Chemical mediators, cellular mechanisms
Wound healing
Chronic inflammation: Types, granulomata, immune mechanisms, ulceration, specific examples
Immunological mechanisms: Types of hypersensitivity reaction
Graft rejection
Degenerations: Examples: amyloidosis, calcification
Ageing and atrophy
Hypertrophy, hyperplasia and metaplasia
Vascular disorders: Atheroma, thrombosis (and homeostatic clotting mechanisms
embolism (including pulmonary embolism), ischaemia and infarction, congestion and
oedema, angiogenesis, hypertension, aneurysms, diabetic microangiopathy
Neoplasia: Definition, terminology, concepts; benign and malignant tumours;
carcinogenesis; gene control – including regulation of apoptosis; oncogenes; geographical
and environmental factors; pre-neoplastic conditions; effects of irradiation and cytotoxic

We age. We inflame. We shock. We hurt. We can heal with sorrow or heal with love. Heal the eye with your love.


With an emphasis on:
Cornea endothelial dysfunction and corneal dystrophies
Age Related Macular Degeneration
Retinal vascular occlusion
Ocular neoplasia
Retinal detachment and Proliferative Vitreo-retinopathy

A clear eye clears the mind. A clear mind clears the world.


The biological and clinical behaviour of the micro-organisms responsible for infections
Elementary principles of microbial pathogenesis: Concepts of colonisation, invasion, endotoxins, exotoxins, virulence and pathogenicity etc.
Gram staining and classification
Commensal eye flora
Viruses: Classification, structure and replication, antiviral agents, laboratory methods of viral detection; viral infections of the eye.
Fungi: Classification, factors which predispose to fungal infection, antifungal agents.
Toxoplasmosis, Chlamydia, Acanthamoeba, helminthic infections
Principles of sterilization: Disinfection and asepsis and the application of these to current
practice and practical procedures
Antimicrobials: Spectrum of activity, mode of action, pharmacokinetics and resistance

When the eye is invaded, resist and fight. Do not let anyone take over your dreams


Principles of immunology e.g. non-specific resistance, genetic basis of immunity, cellular and humoral mechanisms
Host defence mechanisms with particular reference to the eye
Mechanisms of immunologically-induced tissue damage with special reference to the eye
Role of soluble mediators (cytokines and chemokines) in regulation of inflammatory responses
MHC antigens, antigen presenting cells and antigen processing
Transplantation immunology (with particular reference to the cornea)
Immunodeficiency and immunosuppression
Tissue regulation (with particular reference to the eye) of inflammatory responses)


Untitled Document

FRCOpth Syllabus Directory - click the links below

Basic and Clinical Sciences

BCS1 - Anatomy
BCS2 - Physiology
BCS3 - Biochemistry
BCS4 - Pathology
BCS5 - Gowth and senescence
BCS6 - Optics
BCS8 - Therapeutics
BCS12 - Lasers
BCS13 - Epidemiology and evidence based medicine
BCS14 - Instrument technology
BCS15 - Biostatistics
BCS16 - Clinical Genetics

Patient Investigations

PI1 - Orthoptic assessment
PI2 - Assessment of corneal shape, stricture and thickness
PI3 - Retinal and optic nerve imaging
PI4 - Ocular angiography
PI5 - Ultrasonography
PI6 - Radiology and other neuro-imaging
PI7 - Oculo and neuro-physiology
PI8 - Biochemistry
PI9 - Haematology
PI10 - Pathology
PI11 - Microbiology
PI12 - Biometry
PI13 - Fields (automated, Goldman)
PI14 - Immunology and Allergy testing
PI15 - Urinalysis
PI16 - Bone scans

The syllabus word document (download here)